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2 edition of Organization of T4 bacteriophage genes and gene products involved in DNA precursor biosynthesis found in the catalog.

Organization of T4 bacteriophage genes and gene products involved in DNA precursor biosynthesis

Yeong Wang

Organization of T4 bacteriophage genes and gene products involved in DNA precursor biosynthesis

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  • 24 Currently reading

Published .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Bacteriophage T4.,
  • DNA -- Synthesis.

  • Edition Notes

    Statementby Yeong Wang.
    The Physical Object
    Pagination155 leaves, bound :
    Number of Pages155
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL15528628M

    Sequence analysis indicated that the O O-antigen biosynthesis (rfb) locus contains a cluster of nine genes which may be cotranscribed. Comparison with sequence databases identified candidate genes for four glycosyl transferases, an O -acetyl transferase, an O-unit flippase, and an O-antigen polymerase, as well as copies of galE and gnd. More specifically, they can be employed in monolignol biosynthesis, where cinnamatehydroxylase, p-coumaroyl CoA 3-hydroxylase, and ferulate 5-hydroxylase are responsible for the successive hydroxylation of the C 6 C 3 core (52, 53) as well as in the biosynthetic pathway leading to many downstream products, e.g. in flavonoid and lignan ( [email protected] Search form. Search. For example, there were higher mRNA levels of 10 genes belonging to an operon involved in the biosynthesis of capsular polysaccharide colanic acids, such as gmd and wzc (Whitfield and Roberts, ), and 10 genes involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis, such as rfaI and wbbJ, in an H‐NS‐deficient background.


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Organization of T4 bacteriophage genes and gene products involved in DNA precursor biosynthesis by Yeong Wang Download PDF EPUB FB2

Organization of T4 bacteriophage genes and gene products involved in DNA precursor biosynthesis Public Deposited. Analytics found that T4-encoded thymidylate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase function not only in deoxyribonucleotide biosynthesis but are also structural components of the phage baseplate.

Two deletion mutants containing Cited by: 2. ORGANIZATION OF T4 BACTERIOPHAGE GENES AND GENE PRODUCTS INVOLVED IN DNA PRECURSOR BIOSYNTHESIS I General Introduction Bacteriophage T4 has played a very important role in the history of biochemistry as well as molecular biology.

Studies with T4 phage as a model system have yielded invaluable information for exploring. Organization of T4 bacteriophage genes and gene products involved in DNA precursor biosynthesis. as well as the interaction of dCMP hydroxymethylase with\ud other DNA precursor biosynthetic enzymes in vitro, availability of large\ud amounts of the enzyme is necessary.

Therefore, cloning and\ud overexpression of T4 gene 42 are needed. The DNA sequence was completed only recently owing to the difficulty of working with its odd chemical structure. It is estimated that ∼ genes are packed into the ,bp genome. The functions and properties of genes have been characterized by mutation and/or by the properties of cloned gene by: 8.

SUMMARY Phage T4 has provided countless contributions to the paradigms of genetics and biochemistry. Its complete genome sequence ofbp encodes about gene products.

T4 biology and its genomic sequence provide the best-understood model for modern functional genomics and proteomics. Variations on gene expression, including overlapping genes, internal translation Cited by: Wovcha MG, Tomich PK, Chiu CS, Greenberg GR.

Direct participation of dCMP hydroxymethylase in synthesis of bacteriophage T4 DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Aug; 70 (8)– [PMC free article] Wu JR, Yeh YC. New Late Gene, dar, Involved in DNA Replication of Bacteriophage T4 I.

Isolation, Characterization, and Genetic Location. J Virol. In addition, direct interactions between T4 single-strand DNA binding protein (gp32) and several proteins in the complex suggest a linkage between the dNTP synthetase complex and DNA replisome.

Figure 1 Structure of T4 bacteriophage: COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF BACTERIOPHAGE. Composition. Although different bacteriophages may contain different materials they all contain nucleic acid and protein. Depending upon the phage, the nucleic acid can be either DNA or RNA but not both and it can exist in various forms.

To understand the molecular basis of mutation stimulated by deoxyribonucleotide pool imbalance, we studied a temperature-sensitive T4 phage gene 42 mutant (LB3), which specifies a thermolabile deoxycytidylate hydroxymethylase.

Analysis of rII mutations, revertible to wild type along either GC-to-AT or AT-to-GC transition pathways, showed 8- to fold stimulation of GC-to-AT mutations at a.

Finally, in the cells infected by bacteriophage T4, at least ten enzymes involved in DNA precursor biosynthesis, including the deoxynucleoside monophosphate kinase of the phage, are organized into a complex—dNTP synthetase. Possibly, the distinctive surface features of the T4 kinase protein globule as compared with T5 kinase are due to the.

Transcriptional regulation of the bacteriophage T4 late genes requires the participation of three DNA polymerase accessory proteins that are encoded by T4 ge 62, and that act at an. -a,segment of DNA containing adjacent genes including structural genes and an operator gene and a regulatory gene Polycistronic Arrangement -mRNA transcripts often encode > 1 protein in bacteria: thus a single promoter and terminator may flank multiple structural genes.

A forward mutation assay was developed to study mutagenic specificity induced by temperature-sensitive alleles of bacteriophage T4 g which encodes a thermolabile deoxycytidylate ine kinase (tk) mutations induced by T4 ts B3 at a semi-permissive temperature (34°C) were selected under near-ultraviolet light on synthetic agar plates.

In Arabidopsis, the AW box 5′-CnTnG(n) 7 CG-3′ has been identified as the AtWRI1 binding site in the promoter sequences of three target genes, and 28 AW boxes have been found in the upstream regions of 19 genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis out of 46 examined (Maeo et al., ).

Like other mutations in g tsP reduced phage-induced DNA synthesis to about 15% that of wild-type T4 as measured by thymidine incorporation under restrictive conditions.

Double mutants carrying mutations in genes 41 41 and frd or 61 and frd showed allele-specific suppression suggesting that the products of these genes interact. These products go on to become part of new virions within the cell, helper proteins that contribute to the assemblage of new virions, or proteins involved in cell lysis.

InWalter Fiers (University of Ghent, Belgium) was the first to establish the complete nucleotide sequence of a gene and inof the viral genome of bacteriophage. Organization of T4 Bacteriophage Genes and Gene Products Involved in DNA Precursor Biosynthesis NA: Ah Shing Shih: PhD Structure and Function of Chromatin: Studies at the Nuceleosome and Nuclear Matrix Levels Ken Van Holde: Fun-Yun Xu: PhD Intramolecualr and Intermolecualr Strand Hybridization during Adenovirus DNA Replication.

The intermediate steps in the biosynthesis of the ADP-l- glycero -d- manno -heptose precursor of inner core lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are not yet elucidated. We isolated a mini-Tn 10 insertion that confers a heptoseless LPS phenotype in the chromosome of Escherichia coli K The mutation was in a gene homologous to the previously reported rfaE gene from Haemophilus influenzae.

Among the enzymes involved in DNA replication a DNA ligase, DNA polymerase, and primase/helicase were identified. Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase (PRPP synthetase, EC ) forms 5-phospho-α-D-ribose 1-diphosphate which is an early intermediate in histidine biosynthesis, as well as an intermediate in purine and pyrimidine syntheses.

The asexual transfer of genetic information can allow for DNA recombination to occur, thus providing the new host with new genes (e.g., an antibiotic-resistance gene, or a sugar-metabolizing gene).

Generalized transduction occurs when a random piece of bacterial chromosomal DNA is transferred by the phage during the lytic cycle. (A) Holin and antiholin topologies.

The membrane topologies of class I (λ S, P1 LydA, and P2 Y), class II (S21 68), and class III (T4 gp t) holins are shown, along with those of their cognate topologies shown for the S gene products (J.

Deaton and R. Young, unpublished data) (41, 42, 45), the S 21 gene product, LydB (Xu et al., unpublished data), and the T4 gpt proteins. Some products involved in immune evasion Core is completely uncoated as early expression ends, viral genome is now free in the cytoplasm Intermediate phase: Intermediate genes are expressed, requires products of early genes, triggering genomic DNA replication at approximately minutes post-infection.

Genes involved in EPS biosynthesis are organized in gene clusters which appear to be highly conserved. The gene clusters that direct EPS biosynthesis in Lactococcus lactis NIZO B35, NIZO B40, and NIZO B (49, 50) and Streptococcus thermophilus Sfi6 (43) are comparable to the gene clusters in Streptococcus pneumoniae (33) and.

Thymidine is an important precursor in the production of various antiviral drugs, including azidothymidine for the treatment of AIDS. Since thymidine-containing nucleotides are synthesized only by the de novo pathway during DNA synthesis, it is not easy to produce a large amount of thymidine biologically.

In order to develop a host strain to produce thymidine, thymidine phosphorylase. Glycolysis is a ubiquitous pathway thought to be essential for the production of oil in developing seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and oil crops.

Compartmentation of primary metabolism in developing embryos poses a significant challenge for testing this hypothesis and for the engineering of seed biomass production. It also raises the question whether there is a preferred route of carbon from.

These random fragments were treated with bacteriophage T4-DNA polymerase, T4 DNA kinase, and E. coli DNA polymerase in the presence of dNTPs to generate 5′ phosphorylated blunt-ended fragments. Fragments were then fractionated on % low-melting temperature agarose, and –2-kbp fragments were isolated from the agarose via warm phenol.

Flanegan and G. Greenberg, Regulation of deoxyribonucleotide biosynthesis during in vivo bacteriophage T4 DNA replication. Intrinsic control of synthesis of thymine and 5-hy-droxymethylcytosine deoxyribonucleotides at precise ratio found in DNA, J.

We used an O1-specific lytic bacteriophage as a tool to probe the capacity of V. cholerae to alter its O1 antigen and identified a novel mechanism by which this organism can modulate O antigen expression and exhibit intra-strain heterogeneity.

We identified two phase variable genes required for O1 antigen biosynthesis, manA and wbeL. Nicotianamine synthase (NAS), the key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway for the mugineic acid family of phytosiderophores, catalyzes the trimerization of S -adenosylmethionine to form one molecule of nicotianamine.

We purified NAS protein and isolated the genes nas1, nas2, nas3, nas4, nas, nas, and nas6, which encode NAS and NAS-like proteins from Fe-deficient barley (Hordeum. P1 is a bacteriophage of Escherichia coli and other enteric bacteria. It lysogenizes its hosts as a circular, low-copy-number plasmid.

We have determined the complete nucleotide sequences of two strains of a P1 thermoinducible mutant, P1 c The P1 genome (93, bp) contains at least genes, of which almost two-thirds had not been sequenced previously and 49 have no homologs in other.

In biology, a gene is a sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that encodes the synthesis of a gene product, either RNA or protein. During gene expression, the DNA is first copied into RNA can be directly functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function.

The transmission of genes to an organism's offspring is the basis of the inheritance of phenotypic. The capsular polysaccharides of both bacteria contain glucuronic acid, and the genes responsible for their biosynthesis are organized in a similar fashion (16, 35), i.e., each operon contains three genes, the gene responsible for the synthesis of UDP-Glc (cap3C and hasC, in S.

pneumoniae and GAS, respectively), the gene encoding a UDP-Glc. The PK genome contains two copies of two genes involved in cannabinoid biosynthesis. Copies of AAE1, which encodes a protein likely to synthesize the hexanoyl-CoA precursor for cannabinoid biosynthesis, are found on scaffold [genbank:JH] and scaffold [genbank:JH].

• Bernard, MA () Host kinases involved in DNA precursor biosynthesis during bacteriophage T4 infection. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Genetic organization of the O7 LPS biosynthesis cluster.

The wb EcO7 gene cluster is flanked by galF and gnd genes (Marolda et al., ).Genes represented by gray shading are those encoding metabolic enzymes for the synthesis of some of the nucleotide sugar precursors for the O7 repeating unit: rmlBDAB, dTDP-rhamnose (Marolda and Valvano ); vioAB, dTDP-viosamine; and manBC, GDP.

Several genes involved in the nucleotide biosynthesis pathway have been discovered in all known T4-like cyanophage genomes. Of these, the most prevalent gene is ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), which can provide the building blocks for DNA synthesis through reducing ribonucleotide diphosphates to deoxyribonucleotide diphosphates during the.

It was also found in IBB_35 three genes encoding three topoisomerase II proteins with homology to T4 gp39 (gene ) and gp52 (gene ) and to a DNA gyrase (gene ). These enzymes catalyze DNA interconversions and thus play an important role in replication, recombination and DNA repair [ 36 ].

Through partial DNA sequencing, 21 of the POPresistant clones were found to have transposon insertions in various genes associated with CA biosynthesis, including operons and genes involved in the exportation of CA repeat unit to periplasm, biosynthesis of polysaccharides, and biosynthesis of precursor sugar of CA.

1,8-Dihydroxynaphthalene (1,8-DHN) is a fungal polyketide that contributes to virulence when polymerized to 1,8-DHN melanin in the cell walls of Wangiella dermatitidis, an agent of phaeohyphomycosis in humans. To begin a genetic analysis of the initial synthetic steps leading to 1,8-DHN melanin biosynthesis, a bp PCR product was amplified from genomic DNA using primers.

Dual functions of bacteriophage T4D gene 28 product: structural component of the viral tail baseplate central plug and cleavage enzyme for folyl polyglutamates. Folate metabolism and polyglutamate cleavage activity of uninfected and infected Escherichia coli cells and bacteriophage.

The remaining gene products exibited very limited amino acid sequence similarity to other proteins deposited in the databases, further illustrating the novelty of the YerA41 bacteriophage.

Among the known gene products, there were several DNAP, RNAP β- and β’-subunits, topoisomerases, DNA ligase, helicases, as well as endo- and exonucleases.Of the five kD α-zein transcripts detected, most ESTs were derived from only two genes, the kD B1 and the kD B3 α-zeins.

Similarly, the kD Z1 α-zein, a nonmutant allele of the floury2 gene (Coleman et al., ), accounted for most of the kD α-zein transcripts. Figure 2 shows an alignment and dendrogram of deduced amino acid sequences of the nine expressed members of the α.Thus far, most EPS biosynthesis gene clusters identified in LAB have an operon structure that displays a conserved, cassette‐like organization encompassing genes predicted to be involved in regulation of EPS biosynthesis at the 5′‐end and genes encoding GTFs and .